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挡土墙各部分的介绍

网址:www.miaochuangw.cn  2022-06-02  作者:admin    阅读:

挡土墙各部分的介绍
Introduction of each part of retaining wall
在挡土墙横断面中,与被支承土体直接接触的部位称为墙背;与墙背相对的临空的部位称为墙面;与地基直接接触的部位称为基底;与基底相对的、墙的顶面称为墙顶;基底的前端称为墙趾;基底的后端称为墙踵。
In the cross-section of retaining wall, the part directly contacted with the supported soil is called the back of the wall; the empty part opposite the back of the wall is called the wall; the part directly contacted with the foundation is called the base; the top of the wall opposite to the base is called the top of the wall; the front end of the base is called the toe of the wall; and the back end of the base is called the heel of the wall.
1、墙身构造
1. Wall Structure
1)墙背
1) back of the wall
仰斜墙背适用于路堑墙及墙趾处地面平坦的路肩墙或者是路堤墙,仰斜墙背的坡度不宜缓于1:0.3,通常在1:0.15~1:0.25。
The back of the inclined wall is suitable for the shoulder wall or embankment wall with flat ground at the cutting wall and the toe of the wall. The slope of the back of the inclined wall should not be slowed down to 1:0.3, usually from 1:0.15 to 1:0.25.
俯斜墙背适用于路堤墙、路肩墙,常用1:0.15~1:0.25,不超过4m的低墙可以用垂直墙背。凸形折线墙背多用于路堑墙,也可以用于路肩墙,上下墙的墙高比一般采用2:3。衡重式墙适用于山区地形陡峻处的路肩墙和路堤墙,也可用于路堑墙,上墙俯斜墙背的坡度在1:0.25~1:0.45,下墙仰斜墙背在1:0.25左右,上下墙的墙高比一般采用2:3。
The oblique wall back is suitable for embankment wall and shoulder wall. It is commonly used from 1:0.15 to 1:0.25. Low walls not exceeding 4m can be used with vertical wall back. The convex broken-line wall back is mostly used for cutting wall, but also for shoulder wall. The wall height ratio of upper and lower walls is generally 2:3. Weight-balancing wall is suitable for shoulder wall and embankment wall in steep mountainous terrain. It can also be used for cutting wall. The slope of the top wall is 1:0.25-1:0.45, the lower wall is about 1:0.25, and the wall height ratio of the upper wall to the lower wall is generally 2:3.
2)墙面墙面一般均为平面,起坡度应与墙背坡度相协调。墙面坡度直接影响挡土墙的高度,因此,在地面横坡较陡时,墙面的坡度一般为1:0.05~1:0.20,矮墙可采用陡直墙面;地面较平缓时,一般采用1:0.20~1:0.35较为经济。
2) The wall surface is generally flat, and the gradient should be coordinated with the gradient of the back of the wall. Wall slope directly affects the height of retaining wall. Therefore, when the cross slope of the ground is steep, the slope of the wall is generally 1:0.05-1:0.20, and the low wall can be steep and straight. When the ground is gentle, it is more economical to use 1:0.20-1:0.35.
3)墙顶墙顶宽度最小,浆砌挡土墙不小于50cm,干砌不小于60cm。浆砌路肩墙墙顶一般宜采用粗石料或者混凝土做成顶帽,厚度为40cm;如不做顶帽,对路肩墙和路堑墙,墙顶应以大石块砌筑,并用砂浆勾缝,或用5号砂浆抹平顶面,砂浆厚2cm。干砌挡土墙墙顶在50cm高度内,应用25号砂浆砌筑,以增加墙身稳定性,干砌挡土墙的高度一般不宜大于6m。
3) The width of the top wall is the smallest. The masonry retaining wall is not less than 50 cm and the dry masonry is not less than 60 cm. Masonry shoulder wall top should generally be made of coarse stone or concrete, the thickness of which is 40 cm. If no cap is made, for shoulder wall and cutting wall, the top of the wall should be built with large stones, jointed with mortar, or flattened with No. 5 mortar, the thickness of which is 2 cm. The top of the dry retaining wall is within 50 cm in height. No. 25 mortar is used to increase the stability of the wall. The height of the dry retaining wall should not be greater than 6 m in general.
4)栏杆为保证交通安全,在地形险峻地段或者过高过长的路肩墙的墙顶应设置护栏,为保持土路肩最小宽度,护栏内侧边缘距路面边缘的距离,二、三级路面不小于0.75m,四级路不小于0.5m。护栏分墙式和柱式两种,所采用的材料、护拦高度和宽度,视实际需要而定。
4) In order to ensure traffic safety, guardrails should be set on the top of shoulder walls in steep terrain or over-high and over-long areas. In order to keep the minimum width of soil shoulder, the distance between the inner edge of guardrail and the edge of road surface should be no less than 0.75m for the second and third grade roads and no less than 0.5m for the fourth grade roads. Guardrails are divided into two types: wall type and column type. The material, height and width of guardrails are determined according to actual needs.
2、基础结构
2. Infrastructure
1)基础类型
1) Basic type
大多数挡土墙都直接修筑在天然地基上。当地基承重力不足且墙趾处地形比较平坦,而墙身又超过一定高度时,为了减小基底压应力和增加抗倾覆稳定性,常常采用扩大基础。当地基压应力超过地基承载力过多时,需要加宽值较大,为避免加宽部分的台阶过高,可采用钢筋混凝土底板。
Most retaining walls are built directly on natural foundations. When the foundation bearing gravity is insufficient and the topography at the toe of the wall is relatively flat, and the wall body is over a certain height, in order to reduce the compressive stress of the foundation and increase the stability against overturning, the enlarged foundation is often used. When the compressive stress of the foundation exceeds the bearing capacity of the foundation, the widening value should be larger. In order to avoid the step of the widened part being too high, the reinforced concrete floor can be used.
2)基础埋置深度对于土质地基,基础埋置深度应符合下列要求:①无冲刷时,应在天然地面以下至少1m;②有冲刷时,应在冲刷线以下至少1m;③受冻胀影响时,应在冻结线以下不少于0.25m;当冻深超过1m,采用1.25m,但地基应夯填一定厚度的砂石或者碎石垫层,垫层底面亦应位于冻结线以下不少于0.25m。
2) Foundation embedding depth for soil foundation should meet the following requirements: 1) when there is no erosion, it should be at least 1m below natural ground; 2) when there is erosion, it should be at least 1m below the scour line; 3) when affected by frost heave, it should be at least 0.25m below the freezing line; when the frost depth exceeds 1m, it should be 1.25m, but the foundation should be compacted with a certain thickness of sand or gravel cushion, cushion. The bottom of the layer should also be at least 0.25m below the freezing line.
3、排水设施
3. Drainage facilities
挡土墙的排水措施通常由地面排水和墙身排水两部分组成。
Retaining wall drainage measures usually consist of surface drainage and wall drainage.
1)地面排水,主要是防止地表水渗入墙后土体或者地基,有以下几种方法:
1) Ground drainage, mainly to prevent surface water from infiltrating into the soil or foundation behind the wall, has the following methods:
①设置地面排水沟,截引地表水;②夯实回填土顶面和地表松土,防止雨水和地面水下渗,必要时可设铺砌层;③路堑挡土墙趾前的边沟应予以铺砌加固,以防边沟水渗入基础。
(1) Setting up surface drainage ditches to intercept and divert surface water; (2) compacting the top surface of backfill soil and loosening soil on the surface to prevent rainwater and ground water seepage, and laying paving layer if necessary; (3) The side ditch in front of the toe of cutting retaining wall should be paved and strengthened to prevent side ditch water from seeping into the foundation.
2)墙身排水
2) Wall Drainage
浆砌块(片)石墙身应在墙前地面以上设一排泄水管(图a);墙高时可在墙上部加设一排泄水孔(图b),泄水孔尺寸可视泄水量大小分别采用5cm×10cm、10cm×10cm、15cm×20cm的方孔,或直径5~10cm的圆孔。孔眼间距一般为2~3m;对于浸水挡土墙孔眼间距一般为1.0~1.5m,干旱地区可适当加大,孔眼上下错开布置,下排水孔的出口应高出墙前地面或墙前水位0.3m。
A drainage pipe (Fig. a) should be installed above the ground in front of the wall. When the wall is high, a drainage hole (Fig. b) can be installed on the top of the wall. The size of the drainage hole can be determined by the square hole of 5 cm *10 cm, 10 cm *10 cm, 15 cm *20 cm, or the round hole of 5-10 cm in diameter. The hole spacing is generally 2-3 m; for the immersed retaining wall, the hole spacing is generally 1.0-1.5 M. In arid areas, the hole spacing can be increased appropriately. The outlet of the lower drainage hole should be 0.3 m higher than that of the ground or the front wall.
为防止水分渗入地基,下排泄水孔进入的底部应铺设30cm厚的粘土隔水层,泄水孔的进水口部分应设置粗粒料反滤层,以免孔道阻塞,当墙背填土透水性不良或可能发生冻胀时,应在最低一排泄水孔至墙顶以下0.5m的范围内铺设厚度不小于0.3m的砂卵石。
In order to prevent water from infiltrating into the foundation, the bottom of the lower drainage hole should be paved with clay water-proof layer of 30 cm thick, and the inlet part of the drainage hole should be paved with coarse-grained material filter layer to avoid the blockage of the channel. When the permeability of the backfill is poor or frost heave may occur, the sand and pebble with thickness not less than 0.3 m should be laid in the range from the lowest drainage hole to 0.5 m below the top of the wall.
4、沉降缝和伸缩缝
4. Settlement and expansion joints
干砌挡土墙缝的两侧应选用平整石料砌筑,使之成垂直通缝。
Flat stone should be used on both sides of dry retaining wall joints to form vertical joints.

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